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Texturing Guidelines

Mar 29, 2016
Texturing Guidelines
  • All textures have to be power of 2, form 4 x 4 up to 4096 x 4096.

    Photoshop setup:

    Verify that your Photoshop color management is set up properly. You can access the Color Settings from the menu via Edit->Color Settings...
    RGB should be set to sRGB and Gray to Gray Gamma 2.2
    By default, Gray is often set to Dot Gain 20% which will result in color transformation in the alpha channel. A value of 127 will come into engine as 104 in that case, which can cause inconsistencies, so make sure Gamma 2.2 is used instead.

    UV mapping:

    • Texel density: most of world assets fall within 256-1024pix/m. More texture space is required for objects that can be approached point blank or taken by character, less for landscape elements and tree foliage. Detail frequency in material also plays a role:
      • smooth stone, plaster - 384pix/m
      • brick, rough stone - 512pix/m
      • wood - 768pix/m
    • For the objects of a single material (wood,metal...), scale all UV islands uniformly.
    • Mind dirt mapping (second map set in Unity Standard shader). As dirt textures use same UV set as main texture set, UV islands have to be arranged in logical order (mostly vertical - upper part/lower part) for texturing to correspond with appropriate dirts. This takes in mind that dirt maps contain different types of dirt along upper and lower edges, so for example, in-game a wall's bottom should have dirt splashes, but top and cornices have dirt leaks, both from the same texture, blended onto geometry with vertex colors.
    • Use efficient UV mapping, to save texture space. Stack as much of UV islands on top of same texture space, as you can, without having repeated pattern on model surfaces. For ex.: opposite sides of a box are not visible at the same time, thus can use the same texture space. Avoid overlapping adjacent surfaces though, as you'll get butterfly or obvious tiling effects.
      However, round models should not have cut-up UV layout for saving. As their normal map might get artifacts.
    • Pack your UV islands compactly, starting from one corner. The free space can be used later for other assets.
      leave gaps between islands and from edges for Mipmap bleeding, 4-16 pixels. As mipmaps downsample texture to lower resolution, the color of adjacent islands can bleed into each-other's pixels. Very similar color islands can have none to very little gaps, and high contrast ones as much as needed.
    • For drawcall usage optimization, please try to use as little textures as possible per model count in scene. Use shared textures where possible and use atlas textures otherwise. Multiple materials on the same object can also share same texture set.
    • Use 'blend', 'detail', 'dirt' textures in Unity Standard shader second texture set slots, giving variation to surfaces instead of mapping multiple parts of model to multiple materials.
    Texturing tools:

    General naming: NEW! withUnity 5 and PBR new texture type suffixes are introduced to distinguish between old and new worflow.
    Sometimes textures have to be uploaded for testing, before being finalized. When they get improved and uploaded to FTP, to avoid confusion between different users, that downloaded different textures at different times, but with the same name, please add sequential suffixes to your texture names. As in : _v1, _v1.1, _v0.2 etc.

    Textures are being compressed by Unity on the fly for open scene usage, on build-time for final game, or can be precompressed to .dds by individual artists. Currently it's recommended to
    save and upload textures as uncompressed .tif files, for future editing.
    Compressed textures have to be saved with Mip maps!

    Unity setup:
    Place your textures in YourProject/Assets/textures folder. For final build in Unity, textures are being automatically compressed, or in case of .dds files, included directly. Compression options are available in texture inspector, accessible in Window > Project. Always check the box 'mip mapping'. For correct display in scene viewport, normal maps have to be marked in inspector for compression as 'Normal map'.

    T E X T U R E T Y P E S ---------------------------------------------------------------

    Albedo NEW!

    Formerly diffuse. The main texture giving color to a material, simulates diffusely reflected light.
    Important! Albedo should not store any lighting information (shadows, AO). That also means that median color of albedo is slightly brighter than old diffuse textures.
    Albedo reference charts coming soon.

    Naming: Use suffix _A.


    .tif - for uncompressed editable file;
    or currently not recommended for artists
    .dds - for final version.
    For 3 channel Albedo only texture: DXT1 RGB 4 bpp | no alpha in Nvidia DDS plug-in.
    For 3 color channels + cutout mask in alpha: DXT1 ARGB 4 bpp | 1 bit alpha
    in Nvidia DDS plug-in.
    Specular NEW!

    Dialectrics have monochrome specular color. Never use colored specular for anything except certain metals.
    In PBR system it is very important to get right specular color, because most dialectric materials have narrow range of values (F0= 0.02-0.08) and specular color affects Fresnel reflectance, which is the main visual cue to identify a realistic material.


    Material linear F0 sRGB F0

    Chalk 0.041 60
    Glass 0.042 60
    Ice 0.018 41
    Asphalt 0.058 70
    Rubber (low reflectance) 0.020 43
    Rubber (high reflectance) 0.042 61
    Polished wood 0.047 63
    Brick 0.033 54
    Cement 0.064 73
    Leather 0.045 62
    Leaves 0.031 52
    Paper 0.047 64
    Paint 0.039 58
    Rock (low reflectance) 0.028 50
    Rock (high reflectance) 0.111 94
    Skin (low reflectance) 0.029 51
    Skin (high reflectance) 0.039 58
    Hair 0.047 63
    Eye lens 0.029 51
    Tree bark 0.028 50
    Rust 52
    Ivory 61

    most dialectric tuff - around F0= 0.04 sRGB=59

    for texture authoring, use sRGB values

    Alpha channel used for Gloss map

    Naming: Use suffix _S.


    .tif - for uncompressed editable file;
    or currently not recommended for artists
    .dds - for final version. DXT5 ARGB 8bpp| interpolated alpha in Nvidia DDS plug-in.

    Normal maps are best baked fro ma hi-poly model or made from a heightmap. Check out this tutorial:

    Naming: Use suffix _N.

    .tif - for uncompressed editable file;
    .dds - for final version. DXT5_NM XY 8bpp| using DXT5 in Nvidia DDS plug-in.
    Important!: DXT5_NM compression (both in Nvidia plug-in and Unity texture inspector) saves a file without Z (Blue) channel, it is procedurally restored in-shader. Due to lossy nature of this process, the resulting normal map might show artifacts in Unity. Especially very weak relief is prone to this. So, try different saving options or normal mapping tools to obtain the best result.
    Multimap Under revision
    Multimap stores different textures (Ambient occlusion, cavity, heightmap) in each channel.


    .tif - for uncompressed editable file;
    or currently not recommended for artists

    .dds - for final version.
    for multimap containing texture in Alpha - DXT5 ARGB 8bpp| interpolated alpha in Nvidia DDS plug-in.

    for multimap without Alpha - DXT1 RGB 4 bpp | no alpha
    in Nvidia DDS plug-in.

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